Table 1

Description of study variables and their measurement for reporting (created by authors)

MeasureMeasurement processDefinition of variableTools used to measureResults reported
Aim 1
Medication errorsDirect observation of nurses during programming medications.
Assessing reports from the error reporting system in the safe time period of the study
Errors during the medication administration process: wrong time from expected medication delivery start and end, dose, rate of infusionObservations entered using a documentation formPercentage of infusions with errors of total observed infusions and reported medication errors
InterruptionsDirect observation for interruptions during medication administrationAny additional external events that occur with the nurse during their preparation or administration of medications or programming the IVSPObservations entered using a documentation formNumber of interruptions observed, duration of delay if programming stopped due to interruption and percentage of interruptions for total observed infusions
DERS complianceIVSP report servers and direct observation of nurses using the DERS while programming medications/IVs—contains libraries of medications with preset rates and dosages for medications and limits for manual dosingPeristaltic—Knowledge Portal
Report server
Observations entered using a documentation form
Percent of total infusions from the report server using drug library for peristaltic—Used population of like-unit acuity classification for denominator
Observation noted if DERS library was used for infusion or not.
Aim 2
Compliance with IVSP set-upDirect observation during clinical practice with programming IVSPCompliance with the instructions for use by the manufacturers for both IVSPsDirect observation using the instructions for use guidelines and measuring tapeMean measurements in inches for each parameter and percentage of adherence to all expected set-up actions. Numbers can be positive or negative, depending on the relationship to the correct level.
Programming workloadNASA-TLX survey completed on the peristaltic IVSP prior to training for pneumatic IVSP and for the pneumatic IVSP, after clinical use for 2 monthsA raw, unweighted survey assessment of mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort and frustration on a 0–20 scale.NASA-TLX a Validated tool to measure workloadMean of the raw sum of the total scores for the NASA-TLX
Programming timeDirect observation and timing of IVSP programmingTiming started at pressing the first button required to start programming sequence ended when the start infusion button/option is pressedThe stopwatch function on the same smartphone throughout study and recorded on study formMean time in seconds by infusion type (primary and secondary)
Ease-of-useSurvey completed for the peristaltic IVSP prior to training for pneumatic IVSP and for the pneumatic IVSP, after use for 2 months after clinical use10-item Likert type survey with five responses from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Imputed scores can range from 0 to 100 and grade from A to FValidated tool for usability: SUSMean of imputed scores of SUS following guidelines for tool use
  • DERS, dose error reduction systems; IVSP, intravenous smart pump; NASA-TLX, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index; SUS, System Usability Scale.