Table 1

Comparison of experimental conditions of the existing in vitro models

Model numberIn vitro modelSource of bilePresence of bacteriaPresence of fibreTime of cloggingFlow rate
IVM 1McAllister et al 12 HumanYes (E.coli)NoMinimum 6 days0.5 mL/min
IVM 2Hoffman et al 13 HumanYes (E. coli)No14 days2 mL/min
IVM 3Tsang et al 14 PorcineYes (E. coli)No56 days0.5 mL/min
IVM 4Leung et al 15 Ox bileYes (E. coli and Enterococcus)No28 daysNo information
IVM 5Kwon et al 16 Human (for the in vitro model) and swine (for the in vivo model)Yes
(type not mentioned)
No28–56 days1 mL/min
  • IVM, in vitro model.