Table 1

Comparison of experimental conditions of the existing in vitro models

Model numberIn vitro modelSource of bilePresence of bacteriaPresence of fibreTime of cloggingFlow rate
IVM 1McAllister et al12HumanYes (E.coli)NoMinimum 6 days0.5 mL/min
IVM 2Hoffman et al13HumanYes (E. coli)No14 days2 mL/min
IVM 3Tsang et al14PorcineYes (E. coli)No56 days0.5 mL/min
IVM 4Leung et al15Ox bileYes (E. coli and Enterococcus)No28 daysNo information
IVM 5Kwon et al16Human (for the in vitro model) and swine (for the in vivo model)Yes
(type not mentioned)
No28–56 days1 mL/min
  • IVM, in vitro model.