Table 4

Health-related effects of innovation design contests

First authorPrimary outcome measureType of contest engagementEvaluation study designComparator groupIntervention groupSummary findingsStudy quality (scale: 0–10)
Cella et al32Proportion of students currently smokingObserved contestPre–post cross-sectional surveys3.20%5.70%Proportion of students currently smoking was not statistically significantly different after observing the contest9.4
Croghan et al33Number of teens in smoking cessation programmesUnspecifiedPre–postevaluation of routinely collected dataBaseline referenceIncrease of 58%More teens in the community participated in smoking cessation programmes after the contest8.1
Dawson et al35Rate of online sun safety videos viewedUnspecifiedPre–postevaluation of routinely collected dataUnspecifiedUnspecifiedOnline views of top-ranked videos were not statistically significantly different after the top-ranked submissions were announced8.1
Keller48Proportion of young people using condomsUnspecifiedPre–post cross-sectional survey46%69%Proportion of young people in the community using condoms increased after the HIV prevention campaign, which the contest was a part of5.0
Merchant et al5No of individuals who pledged to use an AED if neededVisited contest websitePost-only survey414A substantial number of contest observers committed to using AEDs if needed during the contest8.8
Sczersputowski41Proportion of students who felt that the contest inspired them to change the way they think about mental health and suicide preventionSubmitted contest submissionPost-only survey92.90%Majority of students said the contest inspired them to change how they think about mental health and suicide prevention after the contest8.1
Zhang et al47Knowledge and attitudes about sexual healthSubmitted contest submission, shared ideas about contest with family/friends, helped with organisation or promotion of contestSemistructured interviewsContest helped increase knowledge and healthy attitudes about sexual health among people who interacted with the contest9.0
  • AED, automated external defibrillator.