Download PDFPDF

Cleaning up plastics in healthcare waste: the transformative potential of leadership
Compose Response

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
Author Information
First or given name, e.g. 'Peter'.
Your last, or family, name, e.g. 'MacMoody'.
Your email address, e.g.
Your role and/or occupation, e.g. 'Orthopedic Surgeon'.
Your organization or institution (if applicable), e.g. 'Royal Free Hospital'.
Statement of Competing Interests


  • A rapid response is a moderated but not peer reviewed online response to a published article in a BMJ journal; it will not receive a DOI and will not be indexed unless it is also republished as a Letter, Correspondence or as other content. Find out more about rapid responses.
  • We intend to post all responses which are approved by the Editor, within 14 days (BMJ Journals) or 24 hours (The BMJ), however timeframes cannot be guaranteed. Responses must comply with our requirements and should contribute substantially to the topic, but it is at our absolute discretion whether we publish a response, and we reserve the right to edit or remove responses before and after publication and also republish some or all in other BMJ publications, including third party local editions in other countries and languages
  • Our requirements are stated in our rapid response terms and conditions and must be read. These include ensuring that: i) you do not include any illustrative content including tables and graphs, ii) you do not include any information that includes specifics about any patients,iii) you do not include any original data, unless it has already been published in a peer reviewed journal and you have included a reference, iv) your response is lawful, not defamatory, original and accurate, v) you declare any competing interests, vi) you understand that your name and other personal details set out in our rapid response terms and conditions will be published with any responses we publish and vii) you understand that once a response is published, we may continue to publish your response and/or edit or remove it in the future.
  • By submitting this rapid response you are agreeing to our terms and conditions for rapid responses and understand that your personal data will be processed in accordance with those terms and our privacy notice.
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.

Vertical Tabs

Other responses

  • Published on:
    Micro-nanoplastics as carriers of Toxoplasma gondii and other protozoa in the open sea: Impacts to cetacean health and conservation
    • Giovanni Di Guardo, Retired Professor of General Pathology and Veterinary Pathophysiology University of Teramo, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Località Piano d'Accio, 64100 Teramo, Italy

    Six years ago, Dr James T. Carlton and coworkers reported an unprecedented, tsunami-driven, transoceanic spread of marine organisms following the dramatic earthquake occurred in March 2011 in Eastern Japan (1). This really impressive spread of living organisms was greatly enhanced by micro-nanoplastics, which likely acted as “rafts” for them (1). Among the large number of (mostly) invertebrate species
    affected by the aforementioned phenomenon, special emphasis should be also placed upon microbial pathogens, some of which are known to impact the health and conservation of free-ranging cetaceans (2). A paradigmatic example in this direction is represented by Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan and zoonotic agent of major concern (3), which may also infect striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), with subsequent development of severe brain lesions leading to stranding and death (4).
    Although a general consensus seems to exist on a land-to-sea flow as the most plausible mechanism through which T. gondii oocysts, similarly to other oro-fecally transmitted microorganisms, may gain access to the marine environment (2), this becomes questionable when dealing with striped dolphins and other T. gondii-susceptible species of aquatic mammals living in the open sea (5). In other words, how striped dolphins and other pelagic cetaceans may acquire T. gondii infection is still far from being understood. Consequently, among the different hypotheses drawn to explain this phenomenon,...

    Show More
    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.