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New frontiers in heart failure detection: saliva testing
  1. Chamindie Punyadeera
  1. Correspondence to Associate Professor Chamindie Punyadeera, The School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, 60 Musk Avenue, Kelvin Grove, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia; chamindie.punyadeera{at}

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) covers a broad range of health conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels.1 The most common CVDs include coronary heart disease (CHD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and heart failure (HF).2 This commentary will focus on the use of saliva to detect HF. HF is a complex pathophysiological syndrome that arises due to the inability of the heart to take in and/or supply sufficient blood to the body. The clinical manifestation of HF could arise due to myocardial disease, most commonly coronary artery disease, hypertension and cardiomyopathy. Even though the aetiology of HF is highly variable, HF syndrome represents the interplay between the cardiac, renal and vascular systems.

With an ageing and a growing population, the worldwide incidence of HF is predicted to increase in the coming years.2 HF affects 23 million people worldwide.1 Hospital admissions due to HF in the USA are >1 million per year, with an estimated cost exceeding US$39 billion annually.3 The population estimate of HF prevalence varies between 2% and 10%, depending on the population.4 ,5 The prevalence rates may be higher in selected population groups such as people suffering from morbid obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, myocardial ischaemia and chronic kidney diseases. About 50% of people with left ventricular dysfunction are asymptomatic, undiagnosed and, as such, presumably untreated.6–9 Current therapies can treat asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction,10 ,11 and the …

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  • Funding Queensland University of Technology VC Start up Funds.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.